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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India
This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got. I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are) Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010. One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit. Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells. So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain). Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided. It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)
Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles.India bought something and paid for it.State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.
Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.
The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.
Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally. Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no. From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period,the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground. 1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example seeRajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist.[...]Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.
Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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Why is it a Good Idea to Exchange Canadian Dollar Online?
The Canadian dollar is the official currency of Canada and is represented as CAD. The currency notes of the Canadian dollar are available in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100. Travelers who are traveling from India to Canada have to get their INR converted to CAD. The best way to do this would be to visit BookMyForex. You can get the best Canadian dollar rate on BookMyForex. The convenience of exchanging foreign currency online Although there are several ways in which you can get your INR converted to CAD, the currency exchange rates vary from one source to another. Out of all the available sources for currency exchange, the best forex rate is offered online by BookMyForex. BookMyForex is the largest and the first portal which offers foreign currency exchange online. You can check the live Canadian exchange rates here which are the same as what you would see on sites like Google, CNBC, etc. What BookMyForex does is, it compares the Canadian dollar rate today across several banks and financial centers and then displays the best Canadian exchange rate to you. The online conversion process makes currency exchange a simpler process without any hassle. All you have to do is buy the Canadian dollar at the best rate and we will deliver it to you within the minimum amount of time. The facility of freezing a forex rate online The Canadian dollar rate that is displayed on BookMyForex is transparent and live. These rates are almost 5% less than that of the forex rates offered by banks and money changers. BookMyForex gives you the facility of freezing rates online as well. This means that when you see a forex rate that seems suitable for you, you can freeze that particular rate and exchange currency at that rate within the next three days. Also, there are no hidden fees for exchanging currency via BookMyForex. If you want to get notified about the best dollar rate today, you can opt for the “Rate Alert” feature. This will notify you via email every time a good Canadian dollar rate is available. Wide range of product offering BookMyForex is undoubtedly the best source for exchanging currency online and it also provides multiple options for Canadian dollar products. When you use BookMyForex to exchange foreign currency, you can choose from a selected range of products like Canadian cash currency, Canadian traveler’s cheque, Canadian prepaid forex card, etc. These products can be greatly beneficial when you are traveling to Canada. Canadian forex cards are a much better option than carrying around cash as it is not only safer but it also provides other benefits as well. Apart from these products, BookMyForex also offers the service of money transfer of foreign currency. This can be done by either opting for a Canadian dollar demand draft or through Canadian dollar wire transfer. When you opt for this, the money transaction is carried out directly from an Indian bank to the bank in Canada.
Send Money To Canada At Best Canadian Dollar Rates On BookMyForex
Are you looking for a good forex company or a bank for money transfer to Canada from India? Sending money from India to Canada is easy and simple with BookMyForex and you can check the live Canadian dollar rate on BookMyForex by just doing it all online from the comforts of your home. Sending money to another Country basically overseas or Abroad is called remittance and Remittance can be counted as two types. Outward Remittance: When You Send Money From India to A Foreign Country Inward Remittance: When You Send Money To India from a Foreign Country Methods of Sending Money To Canada: You can send money to Canada from India through following two methods: Wire Transfer: Wire transfers are direct bank to bank transfers where money from an Indian bank account is directly transferred to your beneficiary's bank account abroad. Popular opinion is that Wire transfers from India are the best and most convenient way to transfer money abroad -Money exchangers: They are fast but very expensive and not entirely reliable or secure. You don't need an account but the process is time-consuming and you need proof of residence and identity to send money from India. Money changers may want you to register and verify the recipient or the beneficiary. This is to protect the security of your fund, to prevent fraud, and to make future remittances more streamlined. -Online Forex Companies like BookMyForex- It provides you Fast, safe, reliable, and secure. Zero charges, no hidden costs, and better rates than anyone else. There are several aspects in which BookMyForex far outweighs other money changers and banks when you need to send money from India to Canada or any other country. We will tell you how... Company Like BookMyForex Vs Banks The exchange rates offered by banks are up to 5% higher than those as compared by BookMyForex. Also, banks follow the practice of offering one card rates or daily rates that work out to far more expensive than live and real-time rates offered by BookMyForex (the first and only currency exchange in India to do so) for money transfer to Canada from India. On the other hand, since BookMyForex is an online platform for forex transactions, you can book your order online anytime and from anywhere as per your convenience. You get guaranteed best rates when you send money to Canada from India. Online Exchangers VS Offline Exchangers Many forex players are not sure about the documentation required for money remittance and can make you go back and forth unnecessarily, which can be quite a pain! Just like banks, other currency exchangers also operate at 'daily rates' which are not comparable to the live rates offered by BookMyForex for money transfer to Canada from India. Some local money changers offer very lucrative exchange rates provided you don't take a bill for your transaction to send money from India to Canada. Doing so means buying currency from the black market, and if caught, both, the dealer and the customer, are punishable by law and can land you behind bars. Would you really want to take that risk? Being an online Company, BookMyForex provides customers the convenience of ordering online and the guaranteed best rates to send money from India to Canada because there are no infrastructure costs involved. Now, get the currency Exchange services from cities like Mohali, Patiala, Dehradun and other big cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai
There can be different reasons why you would need to exchange money. It could be for an abroad trip or for educational fees you have to pay. It could be for an emergency cash settlement to a relative who are living in an abroad. Many Banks offers you to exchange your money but with added costs and charges. So you can go to online Forex sites for best deals in currency exchange. If you are thinking where is money exchange near me, then don’t worry online forex sites offer you the best deals on currency exchange.An online site like Bookmyforex.com offers you the best features for Forex exchange. Get The Best Deals And Rates When you exchange your currency from forex sites like BookMyForex.com , you will get the live & best forex rates . As the live rates which is present on our websites updates after every three seconds and you can lock a rate that is feasible for three days. But you need to pay an upfront charge of 2% on the exchange. It likewise lets you set a notification for the exchange rate. If it match to your desired rate that you have set , then you will receive a notification email from our site. The Market Rate Fluctuations Forex rates and exchange rates are never be a constant. These rates changes according to economic situations. Banks and moneychangers charge extra for currency exchange. But, a site like Bookmyforex.com offers you a rate that is updated. Likewise, most banks and Forex dealers offer a high rate of margin for the exchange to maintain a strategic distance from any misfortune they bring about in the worldwide market. By picking a reasonable rate, make payment and get your currency exchanged at no additional cost. The site delivers the exchanged currency at your doorstep. The best decision for Money Exchange With digital transformation, everything can be done online today. From the booking of air tickets to making bill payments, digitalization has made life easier. So, why do you rely on traditional ways like Banks and Moneychangers for the exchange of currency? With advanced change, everything should be possible online today. From the booking of air passes to make bill payments, digitalization has made life simpler. Things being what they are, the reason do you depend on conventional ways like Banks and Moneychangers for the exchange of currency? Online Forex destinations offer you the best arrangements on trade with a reasonable rate advantage. An online website like Bookmyforex.com offers you complete expediency in terms of exchange and rates. You can also save a lot on other travel-related items like travel insurance and calling cards. With access to more than 650+ locations across over India, you can get your exchange delivered.. The procedure is simple and you'll get your money exchange home conveyed in 24 hours.
Are you thinking to make an abroad trip? Would you like to send gift cash to your relative in abroad? Presently, it is a simpler task with currency exchange alternatives that are available. Banks offer you currency exchange at a reasonable cost. At that point Moneychangers additionally offer currency exchange yet with a charge. The best choice in the present time is online Forex sites. You'll get a fair exchange deal for money and the advantage of Forex card too. If you want to try currency exchange online , at that point you can sign on to Bookmyforex.com and get foreign currency on BookMyForex on live and best rates. The site offers also gives you a more benefits for exchange with best rate alternatives that change as per the market situation. Best Ways To Exchange Currency Online Considering where is the best currency exchange near you, at that point you don't need to travel go for exchange. It's simpler to exchange currency through an online webpage Bookmyforex.com. The site has collaborated with more than 5000+ Banks and Moneychangers. It delivers Forex exchange in more than 650 areas crosswise over India. The procedure is simpler and it takes around twenty-four hours to get your currency exchanged. Cash trade has never been such a simpler errand. The site likewise offers included highlights with cash trade. The Reasonable Rate Alternative Bookmyforex.com refreshes the Forex rates after every three seconds. It considers the fluctuations in rates giving you the best possible to pick the most ideal rate. With this choice, you can freeze the rates for three days. After paying a upfront charge of 2% lock the lowest possible rate. You can buy foreign currency on BookMyForex at a similar rate. It additionally gives you an alternative to set a notification alert. You have to set your ideal rate alert on the site. In the event that your ideal rate matches the rate on site, you'll get an instant notification and this is the best way to save your money and effort. The Forex Card If you want to use a credit card on your foreign trips. Consider Forex card as it preloads the money of that spot. Forex exchange is simpler with a Forex card as you can load the accurate amount of money you need. Likewise, you can reload the money if there is no balance on your card. Forex card is also called a traveler's card or prepaid card. At that point you additionally have a choice of a traveler's cheque. It is given in the currency of the place you are visiting. You can encash it or likewise use it for any purchase you made. Buy Forex card is the most flexible option if you are planning to go on a holiday abroad. The Best Deals On Currency Exchange, Thinking about what might be the best alternative for currency exchange. Then it is best way to login to Bookmyforex.com. Apart from money exchange gives, you additionally get best customer support. On the off chance that you are left with any issues, you can contact the team. Nowadays digital system is booming, so it is smarter to exploit it in the correct manner. Online Forex exchange is not only the feasible way but also a cheap. You'll save money exchange charges and expenses. Buy Forex exchange is not a hassle anymore; you can do it in no time.
Get Best Currency Exchange Rates In Mumbai With BookMyForex
Want to get the best currency exchange rates in mumbai ? For the first time in India, you can see the live market exchange rates online 24x7 on BookMyForex.com. BookMyForex, provides you to book your forex at the exact live currency exchanger rates in Mumbai shown on our site. So, if you want to know get the best currency exchange rates then visit website link .
Convert USD to INR or US Dollar to INR at Best Rate
USD to INR USD is a currency that is accepted in several countries of the world due to which many people consider getting their money exchanged from USD to INR while traveling from India to other places. If you are one among them, you must turn to BookMyForex to get the best conversion rate online. Why should I choose BookMyForex for INR to USD conversions? BookMyForex is the largest and the only currency exchange marketplace online where you can not just make the currency conversions but also get it delivered at your doorstep. Since the platform is digitally enabled, the most competitive conversion rates in the market are provided by BookMyForex. BookMyForex deals only with the money changers and banks which are approved by RBI and the Dollar to INR rate keeps getting updated live every 3 seconds, making it the most reliable and trustworthy marketplace for money exchange. BookMyForex offers the convenience of getting forex converted and delivered at your doorstep. You can do this by making your forex bookings online or through the app. There are absolutely no hidden or extra charges when you convert dollar to INR or vice versa from BookMyForex online. Online currency exchange companies provide feasible deals on currency exchange. An online currency exchange marketplace like Bookmyforex.com lets you convert USD to INR at best rates. The best part you can freeze the rates for three days and exchange the currency at the same rate you freeze. Contact us to convert USD to INR anytime at best rate. USD to INR
As Delhi is the National capital of India, its the city with most commercial and business centers. If you are looking for a Money exchange in Delhi, then you have many options available today. Some people still consider moneychangers for the exchange of currency in Delhi. Moneychangers offer you a constant rate and also charge you nominal fees for the exchange. Banks also offer you currency exchange in Delhi but again with fees that you have to pay. The easiest and perhaps the most convenient way to exchange currency is through online Forex sites. You'll save on your time and effort both. Online exchange sites A site like Bookmyforex.com has completely changed the currency exchange scene in Delhi. Whether its the first time you are going on a trip or you need to make emergency remittance, the site gives you a list of currency exchange rates in Delhi. You'll be able to choose a rate you need. With the live rate feature on the site, you can freeze the rate for up to three days by paying an upfront charge. The best part is Bookmyforex.com offers home delivery to major locations of Delhi including Connaught place, Delhi airport, Karol Baug, Paharganj and Nehru place. You'll be able to receive your exchange order at any location and time without any hassle. Best rate advantage Do you know with online Forex sites, you'll get the best rate advantage. As Forex rates keep changing and fluctuate with market conditions, an online site like Bookmyforex.com updates the rate after every three seconds. If you are wondering where is currency exchange in Delhi near me, then you need to log in to the site. Currency exchange rates in Delhi are fair and you'll get the best deal possible from Bookmyforex.com. There are no hidden charges and costs on an exchange, which helps you save some extra bucks. Banks do charge for exchange, unlike online sites that only charge once. Book your order online 'How to exchange currency in Delhi' is this question on your mind. You can head to Bookmyforex.com for booking your exchange order. You need to choose the location and exchange rate that is feasible for you. Enter the amount and provide all the relevant documents for exchange. Once the process is done, you can make the final payment. The site will deliver your order right at the comfort of your home. The process of exchange is transparent and comfortable. Money exchange in Delhi has never been this simple. The services on offer Apart from currency exchange, Bookmyforex.com also offers you a Forex card and traveler's cheque for exchange. You can book a Forex card and load in the currency to use it at the place you need to. Then there is a traveler's cheque that is issued in the currency of that place. With so many features, you'll also get the benefit of customer support. If you are stuck with any issue of money exchange in Delhi, you can contact the customer care team. Easy referral programs will also give you added advantage on booking orders online.
If you need to travel abroad or exchange currency for emergency remittance, you should know about currency exchange in India. Are you wondering, 'Where is foreign exchange near me', well there are banks, moneychangers and online sites that'll help you through the process. Banks and money changers charge extra for currency exchange, unlike online Forex sites. The exchange process Still worried and thinking "where is currency exchange near me'. You simply have to log into Bookmyforex.com. Choose your location, enter the rate, and amount. With uploading the relevant documents, you can book your order. The best part about online order is, the site will get it delivered at your doorstep. As Bookmyforex.com delivers to more than 650 cities across India, you can get Forex delivery anywhere in India. The exchange process is simple and your order can be delivered on the same day. You do not have to pay extra for Forex exchange in India as the site charges a nominal amount on exchange. Things have gone the digital way today and online payments have become common. Its time you use online Forex sites for currency exchange rather than moneychangers. The process is flexible and transparent and safety is guaranteed as well. Explore online options A site like Bookmyforex.com offers complete expediency in currency exchange. You'll get the best-updated rate options. The site updates the live feed of rates every three seconds. You'll be able to freeze the rate for three days by paying a normal upfront charge. With rate alert option, the site sends you a notification of your desired rate so that saves on your money as well. Bookmyforex.com offers you many features for currency exchange. You can also choose a Forex card or traveler's cheque for exchange. Forex card is a preloaded card with the currency of the place you are visiting. Traveler's cheque is issued in the currency of your preferred location. It is easy to make payments with preloaded Forex cards. You'll get the benefit of flexible Forex rates with the option of Forex cards. Get the best deal, Get your money exchanged in a hassle-free way with Bookmyforex.com. You can get the best deal with live rate advantage and fair prices. Log in today for Forex exchange and avail great offers.
Do You Know Dollar Rate in Delhi Today? - Read to Know!
Delhi being the capital of India has always been the hub for foreign exchange. Due to National and International tourism activity, the foreign exchange demand in Delhi is always high. Banks offer a rate that is constant on foreign exchange. But, online sites update the rates depending on market trends. Do you know the dollar rate today in Delhi? Well, its easier to check the rate from the site Bookmyforex.com. The dollar rate in Delhi is updated every three seconds on the site. In no time, you can freeze the rate of your choice and get your money exchanged. Dollar rates today in Delhi also depend on demand and supply. Though the demand for exchange is high, it also depends on the person who needs to exchange currency for a purpose. Why you should choose an online Forex site for exchange? Today dollar rate in Delhi may change depending on live market rate feed. If you need to exchange currency from INR to USD, then an online site like Bookmyforex.com offers you the best features. You'll get the lowest exchange rate guarantee from the site along with the rate alert feature. A rate alert feature sends you a notification when the rate is near your desired rate. You'll be able to book your exchange order according to the exact dollar rate in Delhi. The process is flexible and transparent. The online site also offers you a rate freeze feature option. Suppose you come across a low dollar rate today in Delhi. You'll be able to freeze the rate for three days. You'll be able to use the same rate you freeze for three days for an exchange. This ensures that you have a safe and secure transaction execution. For people who stay in Delhi, its actually time saving because the order is home delivered by Bookmyforex.com Get the best dollar rate in Delhi You can simply log on to Bookmyforex.com and enter your location to get the dollar rate today in Delhi. The exchange rates online will help you with your Forex transactions. But the rates do not remain constant. They fluctuate and the site updates it every three seconds. You need to make an early booking if you want to exchange your currency at a low rate possible. Irrespective of your location or place in Delhi, you can book a rate and order Forex online. This saves on your effort of manually finding the rate or going to moneychangers for rate and exchange. The many benefits to choosing an online Forex site Bookmyforex.com offers you the best rates that are better than banks and moneychangers. The live rates are transparent and competitive. With the same-day delivery feature, you'll be able to receive your order on the same day. Bookmyforex.com offers you best customer support, if you are stuck with any issue regarding Forex order online, you can contact the support team. On regular booking of exchange orders, the site provides loyalty ad referral benefits. You can earn money by referring your friends and family for an exchange order in Delhi. Buying exchange Forex rates are live on Bookmyforex.com. After checking today's dollar rate in Delhi, you can buy or sell USD on a similar live rate. The site features only authorized RBI vendors so it ensures complete quality check upon your booking. The site offers free home delivery orders above 50,000, so you can book your order from home or office and get it delivered in no time. Foreign exchange in Delhi is easier with online features offered by the site. You can also use a Forex card for exchange. A Forex card is a preloaded cash card with currency of the particular place you are visiting. It also reloads the card with no added fees. Get the best deal, The Dollar rate in Delhi is never constant and fluctuates according to the economy. Online sites provide you complete expediency so that you get a fair rate advantage on the exchange deal you choose. Get your exchange from the comfort of your home in Delhi, just log on to the site Bookmyforex.com.
Times have changed and how. You don't need to rely on traditional ways like Banks and Moneychangers to buy Forex today. In this digital era, everything can be done online. You can buy Forex online after comparing various rates. You'll get the benefit of the lowest rate and it'll save on your time as well. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers great features on Forex exchange. You have the convenience to buy Forex online with lock-in options. The best part is online sites do not charge extra on Forex exchange, unlike Banks that charge 2.5% to 6% on exchange. Get the best rate advantage with easy Forex delivery across many locations in India. Complete expediency and best rate advantage The online currency is updated according to market fluctuations. The live rate feed will help you get the best rate if you want to buy Forex online. Bookmyforex.com offers a rate alert feature on Forex exchange. It notifies you when the rate is set near your desired rate giving you a fair price advantage. With online booking of Forex, you can get it delivered at your home. Bookmyforex.com takes care of remittance, buying and selling needs that offer complete flexibility. It also offers Forex cards and money transfers if you want to carry or remit money abroad. How you can buy Forex online? Simple steps online can help you buy Forex. You need to login to the site that offers you Forex exchange. You need to select the location or the city you stay in. Then choose the currency that you need. Bookmyforex.com offers you more than 29 currencies so it lets you exchange according to your needs. You'll have an option of selecting from currency and Forex cards. Forex card offers preloaded currency of the place you are visiting. You'll also have the option of a traveler's cheque for exchange. Then choose the Forex amount and the rate on offer. You'll get the benefit of the preferred rate for exchange if you have frozen the rate. This can be done for three days by paying an upfront charge of 2%. Once you get the final amount, you can finally proceed to buy Forex from the site. Choose a delivery option to Buy my Forex available and you are sorted. Advantages of buying Forex online
Saves on effort
Why go to a Bank or Moneychanger when you can save on your time and effort. Forex exchange online offers complete ease of buying. You can get amazing customer support with door delivery with no added costs. All major foreign currencies are supported on online portals specially Bookmyforex.com.
Choose the best time and freeze the rates
With rate alert feature, choose the best time to buy Forex. The exchange rate can be frozen for three days so you'll get the advantage of rate if you buy Forex online. The live rates are updated after every three seconds. With the rate card feature, you'll get to choose from updated rates so it helps you get the best deal.
Simple modes of payment with no hidden charges
Buy Forex online with simple modes of payment offered by online sites. Most sites offer cards, cash and net banking facilities on exchange. It also depends on what kind of mode you choose. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers no hidden charges on Forex exchange. You need to pay the upfront fees and a nominal charge. Banks and Moneychangers charge anywhere between 6 to 12% on Forex exchange. Save on added costs and get the best option available. Buy with the app, People now prefer to make payments and buy through apps. It’s easier with Smartphones and it also saves time. If you wish to buy Forex online on the app, then there is Bookmyforex app that allows you to buy Forex in no time. You'll get complete features on the app as it is on the website. You need to download the app to select the process and book your order. Are you contemplating where to buy my Forex? Then head to online Forex exchange sites and apps. The process is simple and transparent. Within no time, you can get your Forex delivered at home.
11-04 14:33 - 'DIFFERENCE BETWEEN KRATSCOIN AND BITCOIN' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/xia112 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 3-13min
''' • The indivisible minimum KRATSCOIN unit is 0.00001 instead of 0.00000001 to denominate realistic currency rates in FOREX. Denomination cannot be determined or dictated by the value of a currency. If KRATSCOIN is valued at USD10,000.00 then the smallest unit of KRATSCOIN at 0.00001 = USD0.10 and nothing smaller than USD0.10 in KRATSCOIN. Example: If USD1.00 = THB30.00 and the smallest denomination of USD is USD0.10, then a USD0.10 which is THB3.00, is unable to buy a piece of candy at THB1.00. Thus the USD must be converted into a smaller currency of THB in order to buy the THB1.00 candy. • KRATSCOIN is in-line with standard International Foreign Currency Exchange Practice at indivisible minimum unit 0.00001. • Each KRATSCOIN is equipped with a 13 digit “SERIAL CODES AND NUMBERS” and there will be a total of 2,100,000,000,000 SERIAL CODES in total. Example1: 1st KRATSCOIN = AKDJFYRS.00000 Example2: 1st Fraction from 1st KRATSCOIN = AKDJFYRS.00001 Example3: 2nd Fraction from 2nd KRATSCOIN = AKDJFYRS.00002 Example4: Last KRATSCOIN = DLXVZKWR.00000 Example5: 1st Fraction from Last KRATSCOIN = DLXVZKWR.00001 Example6: 2nd Fraction from Last KRATSCOIN = DLXVZKWR.00002 • In Year 2015, Silk Road in DeepWeb utilization of Bitcoin in their transactions amounts to USD1.2billion spanning over 950,000 users. One may argue that Bitcoin is most utilized by the black market, which then maintains its value and worth among other factors. However, the USD1.2bil a year over 950,000 users are far fetch from the Legitimate Users in comparison. Bitcoin transactions runs into USD40.0bil in recent Legitimate Crypto Exchanges. In summary, legitimate transaction of crypto currencies is many times larger use in illegal transactions. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FIAT AND CRYPTO: • Fiat Currency is backed by Governments/Countries itself. What determines the value of a currency is the economic health, demand, growth, political stability to name a few, of the respective country. Before 1930, most fiat currencies were backed by gold and silver. • Since 1971, U.S. citizens have been able to utilize Federal Reserve Notes as the only form of money that for the first time had no currency with any gold or silver backing. This is where you get the saying that U.S. dollars are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. Government - quoted in google.com. • What backs crypto value is purely supply and demand. The demand creation of a crypto is its sole objective. To create demand, the crypto has to have a purpose. And most purpose commonly promoted is utility. The number of ways you can utilize the said crypto. The more utilization factors the more demand there is for it. • There are other ways to substantiate value of a crypto and that is to back the crypto with a 1 to 1 ratio in assets or in USD. Then the question is, how 3,000 crypto currencies in circulation be monetary eco sustainable? Can anyone imagine walking into McDonald and view a chart of 3,000 different pricing? Which also means the crypto is a payment gateway pegging against USD instead of bearing any true characteristic of a currency. • A country’s currency is in its own legit form of legal tender, the only currency acceptable under financial sovereigns of a country. People in the world must be made to understand that. Retailers in Thailand cannot put up products price tags in EUROS/USD, it is illegal. It has to be in Thai Baht. • It is hardly imaginable for everyone in the world to retail with a Crypto-Currencies at a rate of 7 transactions per second. When mining nodes are reduced due to non-performing mining ratio, mining blocks in the Blockchain will significantly be limited too, rendering delays in transactions while usage increases. • In time to come, as trends of crypto picks up, Thailand can issue BAHT COIN or UK the STERLING COIN, exactly what China wishes to do. Digital RMB, but would such crypto currencies be fully decentralized? We all have our answers. Absurd to even think of producing Thai Baht, Pound Sterling or Chinese Yuan at the cost of electricity. It is currencies in digital forms. KRATSCOIN is not meant for that purpose. In some opinion, apart from utilization, a crypto can be for safekeeping, an entity for keeping money while allowing easy liquidation, at a click of a mobile button, not to mention sending or transferring without the trouble of going to banks, which was the original purpose of Bitcoin to begin with. Therefore, KRATSCOIN would be better termed as Crypto Commodity, sharing similarities as Metal Commodities. An individual cannot use gold to make a purchase, neither can one eat gold. It can only be kept or invest in for appreciative value over time. Gold is being exampled for its scarcity which reasons for its higher value over its cousin, silver or bronze. Who or what determines the value of gold? Just like any other crypto, demand by humanity. As in all other commodities, it must also be placed in checks by governments. To put in checks, serial numbers are introduced to protect a country’s commodities outflows or illegal exports. Humanity made Bitcoin a reality. Acceptance by the majority members of the public made Bitcoin to what is it today with the trust they entrusted it with, or is the majority public hopping on the band wagon to make a few quick extra bucks? Whatever the reasons are, the characteristics of Crypto Currencies are only matched by the behavior of Commodities. SERIALIZED COINS - WHAT IT MEANS FOR THE PUBLIC: Every currency has its own remarkable name, design and colors. Dollars, Euros, Pound, Tugrik, Peso, Rupee, Rupiah, Dina, Ringgit, Baht and the list carries on. One thing every currency have in common - Serial Numbers. In any crime, investigators will firstly establish motives and mode of operation, both of which are very likely related to money. So following the money trial is a natural thing to do for investigators/authorities and it has become a common practice. Crimes require funding ie robbers need money to buy guns to carry out its robbing activities. Cutting off financing will reduce criminal activities. That’s the approach governments of the WORLD have adopted for crime fighting. Perhaps people do not realize this while most do not feel the pinch. Humanity tends to take life for granted until apocalypse happens. Take a minute to visualize the tallest tower in your homeland collapse into a pile of dust with thousands of casualties effecting everything else that comes to mind. Imagine a family member, just 1 is enough, is among those casualties. • Imagine if monetary system is not in place and drug dealers, among many, roam the earth freely distributing what can be death threatening substance to your kids. What if you are mugged of your inheritance [items left to you by your father] that is beyond retrieval? As for crypto enthusiast, what if your wallet gets hacked as even the mighty Pentagon gets hacked. All the above can go away if the crypto system leaves a trail for hound dogs to sniff out. Money Trail or Serial Codes Trail to be exact. • Citizens rely on governments and their countries to do what is best for them to lead their daily lives, flourish, advance, improve and strive but at the same time, citizens want to take away the single most important thing deemed crucial in the hierarchy of humanity from governments with additional boastful remarks such as “I transferred $400 million from one corner of the earth to another corner in a single transaction and no governments can do anything about it”. • In-short, to boast unregulated financial movement is to arrogantly promote crime without realizing it while challenging the world’s monetary authority. Oldest advice in the book teaches us never to pick a fight we can’t win. • Serial Coded Coins does not take away the financial movement freedom nor does it take away your privacy. It merely provides Authorities the necessary means needed for crime prevention and fighting. It only re-inforce security and safety. SERIALIZED COINS - WHAT IT MEANS FOR GOVERNMENTS: • Governments are relentlessly trying to find new ways to keep track of crypto transactions. Crypto Currency Exchanges, just like all other Financial Institutions and Banks, are required to practice the most stringent Know Your Customer (widely known as KYC) process. The KYC is designed to provide governing agencies and authorities with information pertaining to crypto ownerships. • But no governments can have information on Peer-to-Peer (also known as P2P) transactions unless the government in question launch a full scale Federal Investigation on certain suspected individuals seeking Wallet Developers to unveil the ownership of certain wallet addresses. Do not forget, National and Global Security trumps Privacy Act. Refusal to co-operate under the pretext of Global or National Security will only result in an out-right ban, which is exactly what happened to Blackberry. • Questions to Governments – What if Wallet Developers or Crypto Exchanges shuts down which can happen for various reasons be it foul-play, sinister or forcefully under threat? What if servers are damaged and ruined? An EMP strike or a simple magnet can make it happen. Information/identities of suspected customers of such addresses shall be lost forever and along with it the Money Trial. • The most probable way of evading Authorities with crypto assets are developing an e-wallet for own illicit purpose. Since the cost of developing an e-wallet is relatively low in considerable cost to hiding, what can governments do to flush out these ants from the vast networks of tunnels? • With Serialized Coded Crypto Assets, it doesn’t matter if servers of Exchanges or Wallets are destroyed. The Serial Codes of each token/coin enables governments of every participating country to track both origin and destination by identifying records of each token/coin in wallet address. It can disappear into a cold wallet but emerging some place later yet Authorities can still detail which particular token/coin has at one moment of time been into which wallet, on what day and date. • If the battle of financial crimes can be resolved with a simple Serialize Coded Crypto Asset, the eradication of corruptions, money laundering, unlawful proceeds and terrorism financing will be made possible. Criminals can no longer exploit the genius creation of Sathoshi – Blockchain and Crypto-Currencies. • Global Security, Anti-Terrorism Financing and Money Laundering could just be excuses granting government agencies the need to have access to financial information in the Monetary System. Nonetheless, it is in the interest of every nation that capital outflow is controlled. Capital Outflow is most frequent when the economy of a country is deteriorating. In the face of an economy meltdown, monetary flow is most needed and yet citizens tend to transfer monies further away illegally from their own country in an act of selfishness. This would not be tolerated by any country. Serial Coded Coin shall prove this attempt futile. • In most part of Asian Countries, many crypto-currency mining operations are carried out illegally. The legality sits on thin fine line where Authorities can pin only stealing of electricity as a major concern to the respective country. Since most Power Companies belongs to the Country in one way or another, it is financially damaging to Power Producers and Utility Suppliers. Serial Codes can determine if the KRATSCOIN is mined legally or illegally making it difficult for miners or mining farms to mine crypto while avoiding making electricity payments. Will this deterrent disrupt the chain of KRATSCOIN supply? That’s not how Blockchain Tech works. TAXATIONS - WHAT IT MEANS FOR PUBLIC AND GOVERNMENTS: • Taxation cannot be imposed on “Illegal & Unlawful Proceeds” instead confiscation is enforced in many countries. Origins or proceeds of Serialized Coded Crypto Assets can be easily identified by the Serial Codes in-conjunction with the Blockchain. This exercise can evidently proof the legitimacy of the aforesaid token/coin. By “Illegal & Unlawful Proceeds” also refers to crypto coins obtained via illegal mining operations. • Taxation on Crypto Assets are calculated on profits deriving from the sale/disposal of the crypto Assets. If we are small crypto believers, the amount of taxation rendered by Inland Revenue will be insignificant. Why risk Freedom of Life over Freedom of Small Monies. If we are big crypto believers, taxation on Serialized Coded Coins can be considered added security to your assets protection. • By adopting Serialized Crypto Assets, declaration is made easily possible via proof of token/coin origin via the Blockchain. If the Authorities can know where our crypto assets come from, the Authorities will know where it will disappear to. It is taxation cum insurance in one tiny sum. This added security with freedom feature will encourage self-declarations of crypto assets to Authorities and Agencies. PRIVACY & ANONIMITY: • Many may be skeptical of their wealth being tracked and monitored. But in this era of technological advance society, everything we touches has our signature. Banks, iPhones, Samsung Mobiles, Google, Facebook, Whatsapp, WeChat, LINE, Viber, Facebook, Properties, Utilities. Almost everything. It is to this fact that there is a need for Privacy Protection Act. • As explained before, Crypto Currency Exchange KYC procedures is designed to expose the identity of Crypto Assets ownership. The Blockchain is supposed to serve as a transparent information platform. The question of privacy over Serialized Coded Coins does not exist, it does not make Serialized Coded Coins ownership any less private. • Ownership of wallet addresses shall always remain anonymous while the only way Authorities can get to it is through Wallet Developers by virtue of Global/National Security Threats or by a Court Order as per the Privacy Protection Act. SAFETY & SECURITY (CODED CRYPTO VS FIAT + COMMODITIES): • No human mind can memorize the millions of serial numbers printed on fiat currencies. The records of Serialized Coded Coins will forever be in the Blockchain embedded within each transaction from wallet to wallet. • Serialized Commodities such as gold can be melted down. Diamonds recrafted. Fiat double printed. But not Serialized Coded Crypto Assets. • Should an accessory system be added into the KRATSCOIN Blockchain, allowing reports on criminal activity be made within the Blockchain, notifying all ledgers of certain stolen Serial Coded Coins, enabling WARNINGS and forbidding next transaction of that particular Serial Coded Coin, wouldn’t this function enhance protection. A theft deterrent function which can never be achieved with physical gold, diamonds or fiat. KRATSCOIN SUMMARY: • Most crypto currencies have not reach a level of security alert for governments. This could be the only reason why a possible ban has not been discussed. China and India has begun efforts to control or ban crypto currencies in their quest to combat capital outflow, writer’s personal opinion. The EU has stopped Libra from implementation. “A company cannot be allowed Authoring Power for issuance of currencies” quoted the governments. KRATSCOIN is fully decentralized with no ownership nor control by any country, company or individual. Once again, the beauty of Bitcoin decentralization concept prevails. • “There is no such thing as a world currency. However, since World War II, the dominant or reserve currency of the world has been the U.S. dollar” quoted in google.com. • Most countries have “Foreign Reserves” as backing to a country’s fiat currency. It is a mean of “back up” attempt should all factors above mentioned leading to the value of their currencies collapse. Then what will happen if the Country of the Foreign Reserves collapse? • Serial Coded KRATSCOIN belongs to no one, no country, no company and therefore theoretically shall not be effected by politics, war or global economy meltdown yet everyone, every country and every government is able to benefit from KRATSCOIN. "Quoted by" [[link]6 [[link]7 [[link]8 [[link]9 [[link]10 ''' DIFFERENCE BETWEEN KRATSCOIN AND BITCOIN Go1dfish undelete link unreddit undelete link Author: xia112 1: lintangnews.c*m/ada*kr**s*o*n-*ni-be*a*ya-d*ngan-bi***in* 2: 0xzx**o***019101*124431*902.*tml 3: ne*s.*oko**y*to.com/*ag/**atsco*n-kt*/ 4: bbs.**anya.cn/p**t-l*ok*u*-836*0*-*.shtml 5: z*uanlan.z*i*u.*om*p/*4*44615 6: l*nta*g*ews.*o*/ada*kr*ts*o*n-*ni-***a*ya-d*ngan-bitcoin/]^^1 7: 0x*x*com/2019101**24*312*02*ht**]^^2 8: news*t**ocr*p*o***m/tag/kr*tscoin-ktc/]*^3 9: bbs.*i*n*a.cn/p**t-loo*ou*-8*61*5-1.sht*l*^^4 10: zhuanl*n.zh*hu.co*/**84**461*]^^5 Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
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As you may have read in the last Medium, referees of the new referral program are going to earn 25 CFT when they join the exchange. Let's all speculate and find what CFT is :D –– 200% speculation beyond this point, leveraged x100 –– CFT stands for Coss Fiat Token, the purpose of this token is to represent Fiat value on the exchange. The actual problem we're facing is the lack of liquidity on all Fiat pairs. Let's take ETH as an example: There are multiple ETH Fiat pairs: ETH/USD, ETH/EUR, ETH/GBP. The more the pairs the less liquidity we have. Why don't they merge all those pairs on only one pair ETH/CFT ?
"Da f*ck, I want to know how much I pay for ETH in my home country, not in CFT !"
Exactly, no one cares of CFT, and that's why you shouldn't even see it. Every user in the world will choose (or will have it auto assigned) his currency: someone living in Europe will have EUR displayed and someone in the USA will have USD displayed, but also someone living in India will have Indian Rupee displayed.
"1 CFT = 1 EUR = 1 USD ???"
No, the CFT will only be a stable coin, its rate will depend on your home currency based on Forex prices. For example we could have 10 CFT = 10 USD = 8.82 EUR etc. Positive impact: – Liquidity will increase a lot on Fiat pairs (now and especially when we get more customers trading as liquidity brings traders and traders brings liquidity). – Scalable model to integrate many countries: "I'm from xxxx country, there is not any market in my home currecny, why can't I trade Fiat. Help?". If the conversion is made on client side, Coss can integrate a lot of countries, lot of currencies with ease (as long as they can receive and send Fiat through banks at some point). – Absolutely needed for the POS (Point Of Sale) we're waiting for something around Q2 2019: if a little shop in Australia want to integrate Coss solution to accept payments in crypto, they shouldn't have to accept USD nor EUR, they should get AUD directly, same for any shop in any country around the world. Customer pays in BTC, gets automatically converted to CFT and then AUD on client side. Negative impact / Concerns: – Less opportunities to make arbitrages on Coss through different Fiat pairs (a little bit less volume). – Probably not the possibility to own more than one Fiat currency at the same time (in reality you would hold them all). – Your balance might change over time as prices on Forex moves, meaning your 132 CFT might be worth 132$ at some point and 131.53$ one day after, people will have to get used to that. – Can create some confusion to some users, especially as websites like Coinmarketcap wouldn't know how to classify the prices, as CFT wouldn't be used somewhere else (at least for some time). – Fees might increase as some conversions will be needed depending on the home country of the users (people might deposit a lot of USD and others withdrawing a lot of EUR, how would Coss manage that as it might become a real threat over time if the total CFT market cap grows to 10-50M$ for example, the model needs to be really solid. – How would it be managed on the API, would people got the prices in Fiat like on the exchange, or would they get the order books in CFT and would need to do their own conversions depending on the currency they want to use (as a personal user of the API, it seems that this would need to be considered). Other points: – Even if Coss make a promotion on it, CFT needs to be backed by real Fiat, even if 25 CFT is probably "only" 2.5-10$, it needs to be paid by someone, if not it's a Ponzi scheme obviously. That means Coss Ltd has to pay for those tokens, and I guess they do have an acquisition price per customer in mind, so this is not something I'm really afraid off, but very important for long term viability of the Fiat model. – Wouldn't be a bad thing to give Fiat to people if they do their KYC, they would at least be able to test the exchange and try trading crypto before even having to send anything. Now it's your turn to speculate, hope you enjoyed the ride ;)
印网友评论：印度归国学子：印度可以从中国学到的经验 ZT by 学姐的头 on 2014-04-08
-------------译者：观棋柯烂-审核者：chen_lt------------ kshay Kumar, 25, knew his journey would be tough. But he thought he was prepared. Kshay Kumar, 25岁，他知道自己的旅途会很艰难，但他认为他已经做好了准备。 In 2012, after an engineering degree and a oneyear stint with a multinational, Kumar felt he needed a makeover. "I didn't want to be stuck with civil engineering all my life. I also wanted to see the world and explore new options," he recalls. Doing an MBA from a premier institute was on his mind. 2012年，在取得工程学位并为跨国公司服务了一年后，Kumar觉得他需要一个转变。“我不想被土木工程套牢一生。我也想看看这个世界，探索一下新的机会，”他回忆道。在一个高等学院读MBA的想法浮现在他的脑海里。 He did think of the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and the Xavier School of Management, but the desire for global exposure pushed him to explore options overseas. Kumar settled for a oneyear post-graduate course at the Imperial University in the UK, which he financed via an education loan. "Visa rules and the bleak job market there did weigh on my mind. But I had a feeling I could manage it," he says. He had confidence in Imperial's good global ranking, its alumni network and his own hard work. 他也考虑过印度管理学院（IIM）和泽维尔管理学院，但是对于全球视野的渴望促使他探索海外的机会。Kumar接受了位于英国的帝国大学的一年期研究生课程，其资金来源为助学贷款。“英国的签证规则和惨淡的就业市场确实在我脑海中权衡过，但我有一种感觉，我一定能够应付得过来，”他说。因为帝国大学在全球的优秀排名、其校友关系网以及他自己的努力，他充满信心。 Kumar began his hunt for a job virtually from the day he landed in the UK. He studied hard to get good grades but worked even harder to find a good job. By tapping into networks of his alumni, friends and family, Kumar reckons he would have reached out to over 200 firms during that year. "It didn't work. My good grades made me eligible for plenty of jobs, but my non-European Indian passport was the problem," he shrugs. Kumar一来英国就开始寻找工作。他努力学习以取得好成绩，但更努力去寻找一份好工作。通过发掘他的校友、朋友和家庭的关系，Kumar估计在那年他接触了超过200家企业。“这没有用。我的好成绩让我满足了许多岗位的条件，但我非欧洲的印度护照是个问题，”他耸了耸肩。 Kumar moved back to India late last year and has just landed a job with a private equity firm. "All my plans have been delayed by five years," he says. Close to half his salary today goes in paying monthly instalments on his education loan. Kumar去年底回到了印度，在一家私人股权公司工作。“我的所有计划都被推迟了五年，”他说。他每月要用现在将近一半的薪水来偿还助学贷款。 -------------译者：图特腾-审核者：chen_lt------------
The World isn't Flat 世界不是平的 The West has a problem. Its economy is in a funk, not enough jobs are being created, cautious companies aren't hiring too many, and worried governments — from the US to the UK — are raising visa barriers for foreigners to work in their countries. 西方已经出现问题。它的经济陷入一片混乱，不能创造足够多的职位，谨慎的公司不会聘用过多的职员，焦虑不安的各国政府——从美国到英国——正在增加签证壁垒以阻止外国人在他们的国家工作。 Young Indians, who went overseas for education, are facing a tough time finding a job. Many like Kumar have returned home. And some are now casting the net wider — looking for jobs from the US to Hong Kong and Singapore — or settling for sub-optimal options. Rupa Chanda, professor, IIM-Bangalore, who has worked on reports on international student mobility, says visa and immigration is the biggest factor affecting Indian students' decisions. 海外求学的年轻印度人正在面临找工作的艰难时期。像Kumar一样，许多人已经回家。他们中一些人正在通过更大范围的求职网——从英国到香港、新加坡来寻找工作；或者妥协于较次的选择。印度管理学院（IIM）班加罗尔分校的Rupa Chanda教授曾在研究国际学生流动性的报告中指出，签证和移民政策是影响印度学生做出决定的最大因素。 The US, the UK and Australia — the three most popular destinations for Indians seeking global education — have seen the number of Indian students come down over the past few years (see Out of Favour?). Remember, many Indian students take hefty education loans to finance their studies abroad. While many would find decent jobs back in India that would not help much as these students need dollar salaries to comfortably service their loan. This is taking its toll. "Overseas education is costly. Many Indian students are doing a cost-benefit analysis to figure how to recoup their investments overseas and putting off their plans ," explains New York-based Rahul Choudaha, chief knowledge officer, World Education Services (WES), a non-profit organization that provides credential evaluations for international students planning to study or work in the US and Canada. 美国、英国、澳大利亚，印度人寻求全球教育的最火的三大目的地，已经发现印度学生数量在过去几年持续下降（或者三大目的地已经不受青睐？）。记住，许多印度学生都背负着高额的教育贷款来资助他们的海外求学。虽然回到印度他们都能找到体面的工作，但是这些都没有太大的帮助，因为学生们需要一份用美元支付的薪水来帮助他们更轻松的偿还贷款。这就是造成的影响。“海外教育非常昂贵，许多印度学生都正在进行成本效益分析，以找出如何收回其海外投资，推迟他们（去海外就读）的计划，” 坐落于纽约的世界教育服务中心的知识总监Rahul Choudaha解释道。 这一非营利性组织为准备在美国和加拿大学习或工作的国际学生提供认证评估。 But to be fully able to understand how this trend will play out, one must understand the backdrop. A big generational shift is taking place among the students looking for overseas education. Many of them now are India's liberalization children, who have grown up post-1991 and lived in an increasingly global world with fewer barriers. 但是要完全理解这种趋势是如何产生的，就必须要了解其背景。一个大的世代转变正发生在寻求海外教育的学生中间。如今的他们许多都是印度自由的一代，成长在1991年后，生活在障碍更少的全球化的今天。 So in many ways this is their first brush with a world with barriers. Many are also children of globetrotting well-paid senior corporate executives who think differently about education, exposure and investing in a world-class education. "These parents understand the long-term rewards of a world-class education. I see many of my friends taking their children to these top campuses after they pass out from school to give them a first-hand feel," says Hema Ravichandar, strategic HR expert and a former HR head of Infosys. 所以从许多方面来说，这是他们第一次面对来自世界的阻碍。他们中也有许多是环游世界的、对教育、经历以及投资世界级教育有着不同看法的高薪企业的高管们的小孩。 “这些父母明白世界一流教育的长期回报。我看到我的许多朋友带着他们的小孩去顶尖的校园，让小孩们领略这些高等学府给他们的切身感受，”战略人力资源管理专家、Infosys 公司前人力资源主管 Hema Ravichandar说道。 -------------译者：dragonilove-审核者：chen_lt-----------
Woes on Foreign Shores 身处海外的痛苦 Both of Ravichandar's children have studied overseas. Her daughter, Aditi, is doing her MBA from Wharton in the US and her son Nikhil, 22, completed his Bachelor's in economics from Warwick in the UK. Nikhil chose the UK over India because of the flexibility available in picking courses — he wanted to do economics with law which was impossible in India with its rigid course structures. "Education in India is not very research-driven and multicultural," he adds. Ravichandar'的两个孩子都已经在国外留学。她的女儿，Aditi正在美国的沃顿商学院读MBA而她22岁的儿子Nikhil已经在英国的华威大学完成了经济本科学习。Nikhil之所以选择英国而非印度是因为英国大学在课程选择上有更大的灵活性——他既想要修经济学又想要修法律，而这在具有严格课程结构的印度大学是不可能的。他还说，“在印度的教育并不是由研究来驱使的，也不够文化多元性”。 But during his stay there, the UK revoked the two-year work permit for foreign graduates. Thus he needed a firm job offer to stay on after graduation. This was difficult since he was particular about the kind of work. "I wanted a job in economic consulting," he says. Unable to get that he preferred to do a postgraduate programme instead. While he did not take any loan, for many of his classmates, who had taken a hefty education loan, things were difficult. 但是就当他在英国学习时，英国取消了留学生毕业后的两年工作签证，因此Nikhil需要一份工作从而能够在毕业后留在英国。由于他对工作的特殊要求这显得有些困难“我想要一份有关经济咨询的工作”Nikhil说。若不能获得这样的工作，Nikhil宁愿继续读研究生。由于Nikhil没有像他的同学那样申请沉重的助学贷款，事情开始变得困难了。 Now, Nikhil is back in India getting some interesting exposure at a few start-ups in Bangalore, India's Silicon Valley. He is contemplating a startup of his own. "This is the best time to take the risk and explore it," he says. 现在 Nikhil 已经回到了印度并且在印度的硅谷，班加罗尔与一些新兴企业进行了接触。他正在考虑自己创办一个公司。“这是最好的冒险和探索的时候”他说。 Across the Atlantic, Sujoyini Mandal, in her 20s, offers another peek into the odds that Indian students face overseas. After her graduation from Jadavpur University, Mandal went to Singapore for her postgrad and worked with a think-tank there. Life was good but since she had always yearned for a degree from a world-class university, she applied for a Master's at Harvard's Kennedy School. 穿越过大西洋，20岁的Sujoyini Mandal展现了印度学生在海外遭遇的另一面。在她从贾达普大学毕业之后，Mandal去新加坡念了研究生并且在一个智囊团工作。生活过得很惬意，但是由于她希望获得世界一流大学的学位，她申请了哈佛肯尼迪政治学院。 For two years, she deferred her admission as she did not get any financial aid. She saved some money and, with a bit of aid, finally took the plunge in 2011. Foreign students in her college face an education loan cap of $30,000 ($15,000 a year), she says, making things even more difficult Mandal started looking for a job when she graduated in May 2013. But mandates that fitted her needs and aspirations were not easy to come by. She did land a contract with the World Bank but that was short term, uncertain and had no medical cover. Last month Mandal finally landed a job with an investment bank. 两年来，由于Mandal没有获得任何经济援助，她一直在延迟入学时间。在存了一些钱并且一些援助之后她最终在2011年入学了。Mandal说，她所在学院的留学生面临30000美元（15000美元每年）的贷款限额，这使得情况变得更加困难。Mandal在2013年5月毕业后开始寻找工作。但是适合她的需求和期望的职位并不那么容易获得。她确实已经和世界银行签订了合约，但是那是短期的，有不确定性，也没有医疗保险。最终在上个月Mandal在一家投资银行找到了一份工作。 Despite such struggles, there are many reasons why the pursuit of overseas education among young Indians is unlikely to die down any time soon. 尽管面临这么多挣扎，但仍然有很多其他原因让印度学生想去海外留学，短期内这种趋势是不会消失的。 -------------译者：长太息兮-审核者：chen_lt------------
The Demographic Bulge 人口膨胀 Every year, around 800,000 Indian students reportedly go overseas for their education. This costs the country close to $15 billion of forex annually, estimates industry lobby Assocham. If students are going overseas for education, it's because India has a problem of both capacity and quality. The country has one of the world's largest education infrastructures: 600 universities and 34,000 colleges with 17 million students enrolled and 5 million students graduating every year. But India is also witnessing a demographic bulge — it has perhaps the world's largest young population. Experts estimate that some 100-million-odd students will seek higher education over the next decade. 据报道,每年大约有800000名印度学生出国留学,，据印度工商业联合会估计这将耗费每年近150亿美元的外汇。学生们出国留学是因为印度不管是在教育容量还是教育质量上都有问题。印度的教育基础设施是世界上最大的教育设施之一，600所大学和34,000学院每年接受1700多万新生并输出500多万毕业生，但是我们也正见证着印度人口的爆炸性增长，印度或许有着世界上最庞大的年轻人群，专家估计在未来十年里，将有一亿多的学生寻求更高的教育。The capacity problem is compounded by the quality issue. About 70% of the capacity in India is of poor standards. At the other end of the spectrum, competitive intensity at the premier colleges is so stiff that it is often easier for bright students to get admission in Ivy League colleges in the US and the UK than in the IITs, IIMs and even top colleges in Delhi University. 教育能力和教育质量上的问题是相互关联的。大约70%的印度教育处较低的水准，而另一方面，印度一流学院的竞争激烈且死板，以至于对聪明的学生来说，进入美国或英国的常春藤大学要比进入印度理工学院、印度管理学院、甚至德里大学里好的学院都容易得多。 All this coincides with the rise of India's aspirational upper middle class. Over the past two decades, many first-generation Indians have risen up the corporate hierarchy and are financially well-off. These welltravelled, financially stable corporate executives desire the best for their children. "They are looking for the best educational experience. They know it is a life-long asset. Indian premier colleges do not have the capacity and are very rigid," says TV Mohandas Pai, chairman, Manipal Global Education. Pai's son studied at Stanford University in the US and now works for a start-up in Silicon Valley. 这些现象与印度上层中产阶级不断上涨的雄心壮志密切相关。在过去的二十几年里，许多第一代移民创立了自己的事业，相当富裕。这些经济稳定，见多识广的公司高管希望把最好的东西给予他们的子女。Manipal全球教育主席 Mohandas Pai说他们在为孩子寻找一流的教育，这是孩子一生的财富，印度的一流大学不能给予这些而且这些大学要求过于死板。他的孩子曾在美国斯坦福大学学习，现在在硅谷工作。 This aligns well with the global trend of rising international mobility of students. According to Institute of International Education (IIE), since 2000, the number of students leaving home in pursuit of higher education has increased by 65%, totalling about 4.3 million students globally. What is more interesting is that the share of students from the developing countries in this pie is rising — it moved up from 54.8% to 69% between 1999 and 2009. 这个现象与世界范围内学生国际间流动增强的趋势是一致的。IIE的研究表明，自2000年以来，学生为了获得更高的教育出国的数量增加了65%。全球总计约430万。更有趣的现象是发展中国家的学生所占的份额正在增加---1999年到2009年间从54.8%增加到69%. -------------译者：*河蟹*员-审核者：chen_lt------------
India vs China 印度对比中国 Not surprisingly, the world's two most populous and powerful emerging countries — China and India — send the largest number of students overseas. But China has rapidly shifted gears to overtake India. 让人毫不惊讶的是，作为世界上人口最多、经济发展最快速的这两个国家向海外派遣了最多数量的留学生。但这方面中国很快就超越了印度。 Consider what's taking place in the US. In 2000-01, India topped the list of international students by country, with 66,836 against China's 63,211. But by 2009-10 China had overtaken India. In 2012-13, China sent 236,000 students; India was nudging the 97,000 mark. While the number of Chinese students has been growing in double digits of late, that of Indian students has been sliding. To understand why that is happening, it is important to analyze the profile of students going overseas from both the countries. 2000-2001年，美国的外国留学生中印度学生是最多的，66836人，而中国学生为63211人。但是在2009-2010年时，中国超越了印度。2012-2013年，中国向美国派遣的留学生 已经达到236000人；而印度才逼近97000人。近来，中国留学生人数呈两位数增长，而印度方面则一直在下降。要想了解这其中的缘由，就有必要分析一下两个国家的留学生的一些基本情况。 Chinese students going to the US are evenly split between undergraduate (40%) and postgraduate programmes (44%). But Indian students are heavily skewed towards postgraduate programmes (55%) with just 13% at the undergraduate level. Indian students are also unique as over 60% are in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, maths) category. Bear in mind that historically, postgraduate and STEM programmes offer more financial support than undergraduate and non-STEM programmes. 中国留学生去主要去美国接受本科教育项目（40%）和研究生教育项目（44%），比较均衡。而印度学生去美国主要接受研究生教育（55%），本科教育只占13%。60%的印度留学生学的是理工科。从历史上来说，研究生以及理工科教育项目比起本科教育项目和非理工科教育项目在资金上会给留学生提供更多的帮助。 "The decline in Indian students is directly related to the 'Strivers' , who have been putting their plans on hold due to increasing cost of studying abroad which in turn was triggered by economic uncertainty and currency devaluation," says Choudaha. “印度留学生的下降与”奋勉族“群体相关（根据全球教育服务处的研究，指的是资源少的发奋者），这个群体由于海外留学费用的增加导致他们搁置了自己的留学计划，而经济不稳定以及货币贬值引发了海外留学成本的提高，”Choudaha说。 A majority of Indian students arrives at the Master's level and funds education by taking loans as financial aid from colleges has dried up. So, while the majority of Indian students go for education loans, Chinese students are supported by their families. According to a research by WES, 47% of Indian respondents report loans as one of the primary sources of funding as compared with only 3% of Chinese. 大部分的印度海外留学生取得了硕士文凭，但由于学校助学金的萎缩，他们不得不通过贷款来完成学业。所以大部分印度学生是通过贷款来完成学业的，而中国留学生则靠父母支持。根据全球教育服务处的一项研究，47%的印度回馈者说贷款是他们完成学业的主要手段之一，而这么说的中国学生只占3%。 Chinese students, in contrast, are "explorers" (experience seekers), says Choudaha. Often the only-child of financially well-off parents, they have the financial wherewithal to study abroad and are under less pressure to find a job there. But change may be afoot. Some Indian students could make the transition from 'strivers' to 'explorers' and Choudaha expects more and more Indian students — most of them children of well-off senior executives — to go overseas at the undergraduate level. Not so dependent on financial aid, he also sees many more Indians exploring new interdisciplinary fields, beyond STEM. Even in the STEM category, experts feel that Indian students will be the biggest beneficiary as the Obama government eases rules for this critical segment in future. 对比来说，中国学生是“探险族”（追求体验一族），Choudaha如是说。通常是富裕家庭的独生子女，所以留学的钱不用愁，也没有太大的压力去找工作。但情况可能会有所改变，一些印度学生有可能从“奋勉族”向“探险族”转变，Choudaha预测说将有越来越多大多来自印度富裕家庭的学生到海外接受本科教育。他们不会太依靠助学金。他还说越来越多印度学生除了理工科外还涉及了新的跨学科教育领域。即使是在理工科类别中，专家们认为随着奥巴马在未来放宽这个类别的规定，印度学生将成为最大的受益者。 -------------译者：thekstyy-审核者：chen_lt------------ Lessons from China 中国榜样 Two decades back, China faced problems similar to those India faces today — its higher education had both capacity and quality issues. Since then China has worked hard to upgrade its educational institutions. It has two programmes — Project 211 and Project 985. The former aims to make 100 Chinese universities world class in the 21st century; this will help China churn out world-class trained professionals to push economic growth. These universities are expected to set national standards for education quality that can be replicated by others. 二十年前，中国面对的问题如同今日印度面对的问题——高等教育在质和量上的不足。从那时起中国努力升级发展他们的教育机构，其中包涵了211工程和985工程。前者旨在创造21世纪的世界级名牌大学，这会快速培养出大批的专业人才，有效推动其经济发展。这些大学被期望于发展可供借鉴的全国性教育质量标准。 Project 985 started more than a decade back and is an attempt to build China's own Ivy League colleges in the 21st century. In the first phase the project included nine universities. The second phase, launched in 2004, includes 40-odd universities. The projects have been backed by significant investments. According to a New York Times report, China is investing $250 billion a year in human capital. 985工程开始于十多年前，意在创造21世纪中国自己的常春藤校盟。工程第一阶段包括了九所大学。第二阶段在2004年启动，新增四十所大学。这项工程受到了大量投资支持。据纽约时报报道，中国为人力资源发展一年就投资了2500亿美元。 The dragon country's efforts are now bearing fruit. Many Chinese universities are climbing up the global ranks. Two Chinese universities have made it to the top global 50 in the Times Higher Education report. India has none. In the top 500, 16 Chinese universities make the cut against seven from India. Mobile international students are taking note. A decade back, China was hardly on anybody's radar. 龙之国度的努力现在已经开花结果，很多中国大学都跻身入全球排行榜。泰晤士报高等教育刊报说两所中国大学成功挤入全球最佳大学前五十名。印度一个名额都没。在全球前五百名大学中中国有16所，完胜印度的七所。国际学生们都注意到了中国的巨大变化，而十年前，中国大学几乎不被关注。 Today, it is the third largest education hub in the world after the US and the UK with 3.28 lakh international students, according to IIE. By 2020, it hopes to host 500,000 international students. Even Singapore is targeting 1.5 lakh foreign students by 2015. In contrast, India was home to just 27,000 international students in 2012. China is aware that to push innovation and realize its economic ambitions, it must be able to attract top talent — in its colleges and workforce. 据国际教育学会数据，现在中国拥有32万八千的外国学生，是仅次于美国和英国的世界第三大教育中心。到2020年，这一数字可能变为50万。即使小国新加坡也有在2015年达到15万外国留学生的目标，而印度在2012年却只有2万七千外国留学生。中国已经意识到，若要推动创新和实现他的经济腾飞，就必须吸引来高端人才——在大学和职场上。 Also, in virtually every key statistic, the world today is seeing a shift from the West to the East. From economic GDP to consumption power, MNCs across the board are looking at Asia and the world's two most populous nations. This shift is happening demographically too. But in the education space, the West still dominates. 从每一个关键数据都能看出，实际上世界中心正从西方转移到东方。亚洲国家，特别是世界两大人口大国国民生产总值和消费能力的提升吸引了所有跨国公司的目光。这种转变和人口有关，但是在教育方面依然是西方占主导地位。 Of the world's top 100 universities, 46 are in the US. Seven of top 10 universities are in the US. Asia has just 11 in the top 100. "It is difficult to replicate what US has done with its universities to 2emerge as an innovation hub," says Pai. So, ambitious and aspirational Indians will continue to look overseas for education. But if India has to realize its potential, it must invest heavily in building world-class institutions in the country — the China way. 世界前100名大学有46所位于美国，前十名有七所是美国的。亚洲在全球大学前一百名中只有11所。“美国通过大学而转变为创新中心的成功是很难被复制的，”派说。因此，有理想有抱负的印度人会继续寻求海外教育机会。如果印度想发掘自身潜力，他必须学中国那样，大力投资于建设世界一流的国内大学。
); background-color: rgb(243, 241, 242); color: rgb(255, 255, 255); background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat; ">评论翻译: -------------译者：长太息兮-审核者：chen_lt------------ Skhey Mobile (Gurgaon) 22 Hours ago Foreign degree is no more a guarantee card for success. 外国文凭已经不再是成功的保证了 Neil M (pune-mumbai) 22 Hours ago Finding a good university and a good course is important. I know many guys select short courses which are not recognized world wide and specially in India find it difficult to get a job. Also, dream america is not true for everyone. All the best to seekers. 找一个好的大学和好的专业是十分重要的，据我了解一些人选择了一些短期的课程，这些课程并不在世界范围内被承认尤其在印度会发现很难找到一份工作。并不是每个人的美国梦都能实现。祝追梦者好运 Rajesh Thambala (Hyderabad, India) 23 Hours ago Very informative article. 十分有意义的文章 Partha (Bangalore) 1 Day ago Nice Article. Much Appreciated 很好的文章，表示赞赏 SAMAD (India) 1 Day ago right choice.... 正确的选择 Tempcool Mukhopadhyay (India) 1 Day ago An excellent article. Appropriate and very well timed. Issue lies with inadequate job creation in India compared to passing out rate and all sorts of reservation quota for the "privileged" groups. Also unscrupulous marketing by planting misleading information by the education institutes of developed countries and their Indian agents. 一篇很棒的文章。写的正是时候。问题在于在印度创造的就业不足，而毕业生却不断增加，而且“特权”团体得到各种各样的预订配额。另一方面，发达国家的教育机构和其印度代理通过误导性的信息来是肆无忌惮的推销自己的教育产品。 Guramandeep Singh (Mexico) 1 Day ago 67 years after Independence, we are still stuck to providing reservation quotas in institutes of higher education. The recent Supreme Court order puts 27% reservation for OBCs which along with that of SCs and STs brings the total reservation to 49.5%. Here is the breakup of IIM-A seats: General 182 Non creamy OBC 104 ---- Schedule caste 58 ---- Schedule tribe 29 ---- Differently-abled 12 ---- Total 385 --- I have read various comments touching upon patriotism towards India to youngsters being crazy and the need to enlighten them. Reservation for a certain group is discrimination against the other groups. So ask yourself, is our system really fair? Should we not be looking at this objectively and trying to solve the root cause of the problem instead of commenting upon the phenomenon which is a result of a messed up education system at the behest of corrupt politicians? 已经独立67年了，我们的高等教育学院仍在坚持预定配额制度。最近，最高法院颁发命令27%的份额给“其他落后阶级”（OBC），同时给予“设籍种姓”（SC）和“设籍部落”（ST）一定的配额，所以总共就达到了49.5%的配额。对某一群体的配额预留其实是对其他群体的歧视。因此，扪心自问，我们的教育系统真的公平吗？相比于仅仅讨论因为腐败政客的命令导致的混乱教育系统的各种表象，难道我们不应该客观的看待并从根本上解决这些问题吗？ （译著：印度的预留机制指的是将政府机构中一定数量的空缺席位留给那些落后和代表人数不足的团体（主要通过种姓和部落来定义）的成员。相当于以配额为基础的平权运动。“其他落后阶级”、“设籍种姓”以及“设籍部落”是这项机制的主要受益者。 -------------译者：长太息兮-审核者：chen_lt------------ ILA (Chennai) replies to Guramandeep Singh 1 Day ago Dear Learned Singh. This article has nothing to do with reservation. Reservation is about affirmative action (in US parlance). Trying to give some sort of equal opportunity to people (98%) who were subjugated, denied education, and exploited by so called Forward Castes in India who constitute only 2% of the total population for millenium. This reservation is in vogue for only 60 years how can this equation be achieved in such a short span of time. Now the Forward Castes are slowly waking up and cramming for their share in the available piece of cake. If heat is felt for this itself then what should the subjugated feel for having been so for a millenium in the name of MANU SMRITIs laws? People who believe so are as you had rightly (?) pointed out are HYPROCRITS and prisoners of their own conscience. 亲爱的Learned Singh，这篇文章没有提到预留制度，预留制度是一种平权运动（用美国的说法）。它可以给被占2%总人口的高等种姓剥削了上千年，没有机会接受教育，占人口98%的低种姓人一定程度的公平机会，预留制度刚才实施了60年，在这么短的时间内绝对公平是很难实现的。现在高种姓的人正慢慢觉醒，开始狼吞虎咽的享用他们的份额。如果有些人对这种制度反应都如此激烈，那么在《摩奴法典》教义下过了上千年的被征服者又应该做何感想？反对这种平权运动的人都是伪君子和不道德的人。 RM (MN) replies to ILA 9 Hours ago Excuses, excuses. Sixty years after Independence you're still making excuses for a quota system that has made Indian education into a pile of rubbish. 呵呵，独立已经60年了，你还在为把印度的教育弄得一团糟的预留制度找借口 Athena (London) 1 Day ago It is Imperial College and not Imperial University. Perhaps ET must invest in better human capital! 那是帝国理工学院而不是帝国大学，或许《经济时报》应该加大人力资源投入了。 (Hyderabad) 1 Day ago Same thing happened with me as well like akshay kumar. I thought i am reading my story. 我和阿克夏·库马的经历很相似，我还以为在读我自己的故事呢 Nihar (Mumbai) 1 Day ago It completely depends on which institution a person is studying in abroad. It is not so that somebody got a degree in a well recognized institution in foreign and unable to get a job in India. So I request "The Economic Times" to provide a proper interpretation to the reader. 这完全取决于个人在国外的哪个机构学习。一个人得到国外著名机构的学位，却不能在印度找到工作 ，这是不可能的。所以我要求经济时报对给读者一个合理的解释。 kshi S (Bhopal) 1 Day ago coming to US was the worst decision of my life 来美国是我一生最错误的决定 -------------译者：旧西圆-审核者：chen_lt------------ B Venky Venky (Bangalore) 1 Day ago Very informative article. To have world class universities in India, the government should get out of the way. The quota raj in higher education has to stop. More and more private funds has to be garnered towards higher education by giving tax sops. But all this remains in the realm of fiction at the moment. 非常有教育意义的文章。印度如果想要建设世界一流的大学，政府就不能介入。高等教育的配额制度必须终止。通过给予税收方面的优惠，吸引更多的私人基金投入到高等教育中来。不过到现在为止，这还还都是痴人说梦。 ketan m (mumbai) 1 Day ago study there, work here. sounds great! 出国留学，回国工作，看上去不错！ thomas (india) 1 Day ago Yes, every Indian should go overseas for education - build up net work..learn how other s think..their style-quality etc. come back and start self employed business ... it will flourish. take example from china who are into A to Z of business and industries ,they make impossible happen...of course duly and completely supported by their govt.. 我同意，每个印度人都应该去国外接受教育，这样可以建立人际关系，了解别人的思维模式，健康的生活习惯等，然后再回国创业，这样国家才能繁荣。就像中国一样，在各行各业里他们都创造了不可能的奇迹，当然，也离不开政府部门适时的大力支持。 Saswata mandal (kolkata) 1 Day ago still every good student wants to go abroad.. why is it like that?? 为什么所有的好学生仍然都想着出国？ Nanda Kumar (Chennai, Tamil Nadu) replies to Saswata mandal 1 Day ago ET pointed it out already..Global Exposure! and Farther mountains always seem smoother :) 金融时报已经指出来了。。。他们希望能在国际上露脸！因为外国的月亮比较圆 ：） Anupam (Bangalore) replies to Saswata mandal 1 Day ago Quick money 想赚快钱呗 Mumbaikar (Mumbai) 1 Day ago It's not entirely the kids fault - some ambitious parents push out the kids too - 'we don't think there is a future here', they say. Now, some are stuck abroad and need to return home, as countries are on an economic downturn and/or are looking more inward now, . Complicated situation - but opportunities are here too, if you want to grab them. Not everything here is as bad as you may think. 不完全是孩子们的错，一部分雄心勃勃的家长们把他们的孩子推到了火山口。家长们总会说：”我们在这看不到未来。”现在，由于外国经济的不景气以及现在他们更看重本土的学生，留学生在国外没出路，所以只能回国。情况很复杂，但是如果你想要，国内同样有机会。国内情况并非你想象的那么糟糕。 Bharath Selvan Sukumaran (Chennai) 1 Day ago Good news for India. Let their knowledge be used for Indians in India 对印度来说是个好消息。他们学成之后可以回来造福印度人民。 jgsemig (Delhi110007) 2 Days ago what about large numbers of foreign students studying in India? How could IIM-B professor be so insensitive? In a global world does this mean that Indian educational Institutions have already thrown in their towels? Does it also mean that Universities like SAARC and others have no futures? 也有很多外国学生在印度留学啊。 为什么印度管理学院班加罗尔分校(Indian Institutes of Management) 的教授们这么愚钝。从全球范围来看，是不是这就意味着印度的教育机构已经宣布投降了？类似南亚区域合作联盟（South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation）这类的学校就没有前途了吗？ -------------译者：长太息兮-审核者：chen_lt------------ Sriram B (Bharat) 2 Days ago Learn Globally and be back to improve India. Just as they say wait till the last ball is bowled in a cricket frenzy country; do not lose hope till you have tried your hands on what you want to transform the country into. 出国深造回来为祖国效力，在这个痴迷于板球运动的国家里，就像人们所说的不到最后一球都不能言败；在尝试做一些让我们的国家变得更好地事情之前，也不要放弃希望。 Ajay Kumar (NYC) 2 Days ago Only the people who have earned admissions into Indian Universities based on reservations, face problems studying abroad, as they are looking for concessions always. People who have earned admissions throughout based on their capability and knowledge, do not face any problem. Such students do not come back. 只有那些依靠配额进入印度大学的人在出国留学学习时会面临问题，因为他们一直在寻求被特殊对待。而依靠自己能力和知识进入大学的人不会面临这些问题。这些学生也不会回国的 Ayush Jha (NOIDA) 2 Days ago Study in the US(OUT OF INTEREST in the field and/or spectrum, NOT parental pressure/peer pressure) , Work to repay the loans & then do your own startup in India. All the best :) 在美国学习（自己兴趣使然，而不是受到父母或者同龄人的压力），工作付清借款，然后在印度开始自己的事业，祝好运 ：） Mukesh Mishra (Haridwar) 2 Days ago It didn't work. My good grades made me eligible for plenty of jobs, but my non-European Indian passport was the problem," he shrugs. 他耸耸肩说：“没用的，我的成绩足够好让我可以得到很多工作，但是我的非欧洲的印度护照才是问题的关键。” Ashwani Kaushal (New Delhi) 2 Days ago righly said, getting an addmission in DU colleages are like dreaming in day time.... it is always good to go abroad and get certification and return back... but once the indian student get a better envoironment and facility abroad why they come back to corrupt indian culture, only few with family business background will come to share the same plateform with their parental company ....shamful for Indian corruption 说得对，要想进入德里大学无异于白日做梦。出国留学获得学位然后回印度总归是好的，但是，既然印度学生在国外有更好的环境和设施，他们怎么会回到腐败的印度呢，只有很少一部分有家族企业背景的人回国继承父母的产业，对印度的腐败感到羞愧。 Parthipan K (Chennai) 2 Days ago I agree with the fact that Indian Universities are not flexible. But intelligent students can acquire knowledge of any subjects of their own. So they should not blame Indian Universities. More over, not all institutes in abroad are of high standards. Even in Ivy schools, the standards are coming down like our IITs. My opinion is that if one works hard in Indian top universities, they can acquire global standards. Also all the premier institutes in US are putting their course material in the web and hence, by going thru them one can acquire high knowledge. 我同意印度的大学不够灵活。但是聪明的学生可以靠自己得到任何学科的知识。所以他们不应该抱怨印度的大学。另外，并不是所有的外国机构都有很高的水准，甚至常春藤大学也正下降到印度理工学院的水准。我想说的是，如果一个人在印度一流大学里足够努力，那么他可以达到世界级的水准。另外美国一些著名大学把他们的课程放在网上，因此通过网上课程我们可以得到尖端的知识。
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